Kim M Borchers
on Nov 29, 2013
It is plausible to find vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in many various forms with any number of claims relating to its efficacy or bioavailability. Bioavailability relates to the degree to which a nutrient becomes available to the target tissue after it has been administered. We will focus on the difference among the numerous derivatives of ascorbic acid, particularly M.A.P (magnesium ascorbyl phosphate).
Ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are derivatives of ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C, that differentiate in hydrolipophilic properties. In other words, hydrophilic means it is highly water-soluble and blends well in water, and lipophilic describes the capability to dissolve in fats, and lipids. They are commonly made use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. According to the results, ascorbyl palmitate showed significant distinctions among the other two vitamin C derivatives. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate are more stable derivatives of vitamin C than ascorbyl palmitate and may be easily used in cosmetic products.
Vitamins C and its derivatives, primarily due to their antioxidant properties, are used in cosmetic products to preserve and to reduce the signs of ageing. In a 4-week period a survey was carried out to examine the influences of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) and its derivatives magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) and ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitate (ATIP), when unified in topical formulations, such as vitamin C serums and creams. The intention of the study was to establish the antioxidant activity of AA (ascorbic acid) and its derivatives, MAP (magnesium ascorbyl phosphate) and ATIP (ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitate), as well as their efficacy on human skin, when synthesizd in topical formulations.
STUDY: The study of its antioxidant activity was performed with a watery and a lipid system. The technique and application in which the study was conducted for these formulations were implemented on human volunteers' forearm skin and analysis of the skin conditions after the 4-week period of daily applications were measured in terms of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum moisture content and viscoelasticity.
METHODS: The study of antioxidant activity in vitro was performed with an aqueous and a lipid system. The in vivo methodology consisted of the application of these formulations on human volunteers' forearm skin and the analysis of the skin conditions after 4-week period daily applications in terms of transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum moisture content and viscoelasticity. Transepidermal water loss is the measurement of the quantity of water that passes from inside the body through the skin via diffusion and evaporation. Stratum corneum moisture content is the measurement of the dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation. These cells can also absorb water, further aiding in hydration. In addition, this layer is responsible for the "spring back" or stretchy properties of skin. Lastly, viscoelasticity is the measurement collagen and elastic fibers (elastin).
RESULTS: The experiments demonstrated that in a watery system, AA had the most effective antioxidant potential, and coming second, MAP was more effective than ATIP in regards to reducing the effects of free radicals, resistance from UVA/UVA rays and reversing damages already caused from the sun. However, ATIP was a bit more successful than MAP in the lipid system, in other words a more protective role against toxic compounds formed through oxidized lipids, preventing genetic damage or inflammation. In the study, all formulations bolstered stratum corneum moisture content after a 4-week period daily application when compared with the before study; however, only the formulation consisting of AA caused alterations in TEWL (Transepidermal water loss) values, meaning AA has even more of an exfoliating and drying effect on the skin when applied, in which a moisturizer is advised. The formulations containing MAP caused alterations in the viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio, which showed its capability for efficacy in the deeper layers of the skin.
Vitamin C derivatives did not present the same effects of AA on human skin; however, MAP showed other noteworthy results such as improving skin hydration, which is essential for the normal cutaneous metabolism as well as to avoid skin alterations and early ageing. The advanced skin care study on Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) shows that it is beneficial for: antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, promoting collagen production, skin lightening and skin brightening, and for UV protection/sun damage repair.